All buildings above 15 meter, Irrespective of height Hotels, Educational Institutions, Hospitals, Assembly, Business Centers, Industrial Properties, Mercantile need fire hydrant system.
From average ground level to top terrace slab height is considered as building height.
Water is a universal media, which does not react with 98% items. Water is easily available, when water is converted into steam it expands 13 times in volume giving smothering effect and helps in fighting a fire. Water-based systems need lesser maintenance and have a longer life.
The ideal height of the Hydrant Vale is 1 to 1.2 meter from finished floor.
The ideal height of Hose Box is 900 mm from the finish floor. Ideal height for Hose Reel Drum is 1.4 meter from the finish floor.
Downcomers are normally installed in Low Rise Residential buildings (those less than 24 Min height). The water supply is from overhead water tank in which water quantity has been stored as per provisional Fire NOC. In the event of consumption of water from a tank, water is pumped into the riser from Fire tenders using the Fire brigade inlets provided at the bottom of the riser. Wet risers provided in high rise buildings (more than 24 Min height). In these systems, the riser pipe is always full of water and is pressurized using dedicated fire pumps. Fire brigade inlets are also provided on wet riser systems, to provide water in case of failure of the system fire pumps.
Air release valves (installed at the top of the riser) allow the air to be released, but once water reaches the valve, it closes the valve, allowing buildup of water pressure in the riser, and enabling fire fighters to use this water for fire fighting.
In high rise buildings, the pressure will vary on different floors due to the difference in the head at different levels. This can result in the vast difference in pressure from the top of the building to the bottom. To ensure that the same standard pressure is available from hydrant valves at all levels, different size orifice plates are required to be fitted at the inlet of the hydrant valve. The orifice size will depend on the level of the hydrant and the running pressure required from the hydrant.
Fire Hose Reels provide the first line of defense for building occupants in the event of a fire. Like fire extinguishers, these are considered first aid appliances. Due to a low flow rate, there is no problem of jet reaction and is simple in operation, hose reels can be safely used by occupants to fight small fires in buildings.
Most standards around the world, including BIS, allow the use of different materials for construction for hydrant valves, which include Bronze, Aluminum, Stainless Steel. The main requirements are mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and suitability to the application.
Stainless steel (SS) has higher mechanical (tensile) strength as compared to Bronze, hence SS Hydrant valves can withstand higher working pressures as compared to Bronze valves. Stainless steel is non-corrosive, and at the same time, can survive harsh industrial environments. Stainless steel, unlike Bronze, has a low resale value, and this reduces theft of the valve parts, which is common with Bronze valves. Cost of Stainless steel and bronze valves are comparable at present market rates, however, due to its durability and long life, the cost of Stainless Steel valves is actually much lower over its entire working life.
When installing hydrant valves, ensure the following –
- Ensure that the mating flange of the hydrant post is matching to the valve inlet flange.
- An orientation of hydrant valve outlet should be as per standard practices and should allow easy connection of hoses.
- Use approved gasket between flanges, and good quality nuts/ bolts
- Ensure minimum height of 750 mm from grade level.
- Ensure that the hydrant valve rated working pressure is matching to the hydrant system line pressure. If hydrant system pressure is higher, ensure that the hydrant valves are rated for a higher pressure, which matches system pressure.
- If Orifice plates are required to be used, ensure that these are of standard size, and provided by the original supplier. Installation of orifice plates should be as per standard practices.
- Ensure that operators are familiar with the operation of the hydrant i.e. direction for opening/ closing.
- Open and close the valve slowly – this will prevent water hammer, and ensure the safety of operator and equipment.
- Do not over tighten the valve (or use spanners) when closing. If valve leaks after closing, it means that the seat washer is not sealing against its seat. This could be due to foreign objects or wear and tear of a washer. Over tightening may damage the threads, bonnet and result in failure of hydrant body.
Hydrant valves, if well designed and manufactured as per quality standards, require little maintenance. Proper periodic cleaning and light greasing of stud threads and light oiling of the lug will ensure proper operation. Normal parts which can require replacement are the rubber washer (hydrant outlet), seat washer and the gland packing. Use standard washers, if replacement is required.
Though marked/ approved/ listed hydrant valves may look similar in design/ shape, the component size and/ or thread types may differ for different brands. Using externally fabricated/ manufactured parts may also be unsafe, as they may not have the same material properties. Hence it is advisable to use spare parts from the same supplier of the hydrant valve.
When properly maintained, a good fire alarm will last you about 10 – 12 years. After this long you should have your fire alarms replaced, even if they seem to be working – you don’t want to compromise your building’s fire safety. In addition, technological advancements are making fire alarms more and more effective every day, and you don’t want to be stuck with an outdated model that won’t keep you as safe as possible.
The biggest difference between conventional and addressable fire alarms is customizability. Conventional fire alarms sit on the wall or ceiling and go off individually when they detect smoke or fire, making them perfect for small buildings such as individual offices or retail shops. Addressable fire alarms, on the other hand, provide specific information about individual detectors that is invaluable if your office is part of a larger building or building complex.
Addressable fire alarm systems can be customized to where different devices have different alarm thresholds based on their locations. Addressable fire alarm systems are typically more expensive than conventional alarms, but the extra information they provide to firefighters and building managers is invaluable.
Yes. Even though fire sprinkler systems are highly effective fire protection systems, they only kick into gear after the fire has already started and the heat has risen to a certain level. Fire alarm systems detect the presence of fire before the flames start, giving you extra time to escape the building. They can also automatically alert the fire department.
Most smoke alarms will chirp at regular intervals to indicate their batteries are low.
If your fire alarms seem to be making noises randomly, there could be a number of things going on:
The fire alarm cover may be dirty – over time, dust and dead bugs can collect in the sensor chamber of your fire alarm, causing it to chirp. Make sure you keep the sensor chamber clean (the easiest way to do this is to vacuum it out every time you change the batteries). If the room in which you want to install the smoke detector is especially dusty, install an ionization fire alarm so the dust doesn’t affect it.
The fire alarm may need to be reset – most new electronic fire alarms come with logic boards that tell the alarm to chirp when the battery gets low. Unfortunately, replacing the battery doesn’t always stop the chirping! Sometimes you need to hit the RESET button in order to ensure the smoke detector works properly.
Power to the fire alarm has been interrupted – a power surge could interrupt power to the fire alarm, causing it to chirp when the power is restored. Hitting the RESET button should take care of the problem.
The fire alarm may need to be replaced – if all else fails, you may need to have your fire alarm replaced. Fortunately, fire alarms are relatively inexpensive and replacing them is no problem.
Test your smoke alarms at least once every month. Check your manufacturer instructions for specific instructions.
You never know what kind of hazard will strike your home, or when. That’s why we recommend technology that can detect carbon monoxide (CO) and natural gas as well as smoke and fire. You’ll get the most protection from devices that can quickly and accurately detect and respond to a range of threats.
Over time, dirt and grease can build upon detection devices, making them more likely to generate random nuisance alarms. For that reason, we recommend replacing your detection devices every 10 years, if not more often.
Standard response (SR) sprinkler heads are best suited for commercial or industrial buildings, including factories and warehouses. They activate individually to prevent causing water damage where there is no fire present.
SR sprinklers take longer to activate than quick response sprinklers, requiring the heat from a fire below to reach a higher temperature before the liquid inside the bulb expands, the glass breaks, and water flows through the sprinkler head. SR sprinklers contain 5 mm glass bulbs that take longer for the expanding liquid inside to burst them. That said, these sprinkler heads still react within seconds, quickly dousing any fire.
Quick response (QR) sprinkler heads are typical in high-density, light-hazard environments, including hospitals, assisted living facilities, office buildings, and schools. They are also often installed in residences.
QR sprinkler heads respond faster to the flames below by activating at a lower temperature than SR sprinklers. They have 3 mm bulbs that allow the liquid inside to expand and break the glass quickly. It’s only appropriate to install QR sprinkler heads in applications that are unlikely to have high ambient temperatures that could trigger a sprinkler head without a fire present.
Most sprinkler heads contain a small bulb with a colored liquid inside. This bulb acts as a plug to prevent water from escaping out of the sprinkler. The heat from a fire causes this liquid to quickly expand. Once the pressure in the vial gets too high, the bulb bursts and releases the water behind it.
The liquid inside the bulbs comes in a variety of colors, and each color represents the temperature required to activate the sprinkler:
- Orange – 57°C
- Red – 68°C
- Yellow – 78°C
- Green – 93°C
- Blue – 141°C
- Purple – 182°C
- Black – 226°C
Since the fire sprinklers are activated by heat, there is no risk of accidental activation of your fire sprinkler system by smoke or dust in the air. That said, the bulbs are very fragile and any tampering could cause them to go off. If a sprinkler head gets accidentally knocked off (by a forklift, truck, repairman, etc.), there’s going to be lots and lots of water flowing through that sprinkler head until the system is shut down.
Buildings with a working fire sprinkler system see an average property loss and risk of death per fire that is 50 to 66 percent lower than buildings without sprinkler systems.
In addition, the average property damage per hotel or motel fire is 56% less in structures with fire sprinkler systems than without. The numbers above tell a compelling story. Fire sprinkler systems save money, and more importantly, save lives.
- Test your fire sprinkler system monthly by opening the test valve and listening for an alarm bell.
- Know the location of the fire sprinkler system shutoff valve.
- Make sure the fire sprinkler system control valve stays open.
- Have your system reevaluated for needed upgrades when:
- Leave the building and contact the fire department as soon as possible after the fire sprinklers go off, even if it looks like the fire has already been put out.
- Obstruct or cover the sprinklers.
- Paint the sprinklers.
- Damage sprinklers (report any damage immediately).
- Hang objects from any part of the system.
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